Archive for the Insects Category

IN SEARCH OF A HOLY GRAIL

Posted in Butterflies, Flies, Insects, Virginia on August 22, 2011 by Dr. Art Evans

By Arthur V. Evans

Last week, on a drizzly Thursday morning, I drove out to Cherry Orchard Bog Natural Area Preserve with my friends and colleagues Anne Wright and Paul Bedell. Straddling a power line right-of-way near the Sussex-Prince George County line, this preserve features a coastal plain acidic seep that supports an amazing assemblage of rare plants, some of which bloom in late summer.  The Virginia Natural Heritage Program staff uses prescribed burns here to prevent trees, shrubs, and woody vines from choking this open wetland, and to restore and maintain this rare plant habitat. However, after yet another extended summer drought here in Virginia, surface water was nowhere in evidence.

My goal was to photograph and collect late summer beetles, while Anne and Paul focused their efforts on odonates (dragonflies and damselflies) and robber flies (Asilidae). Few beetles were out and about, so I strapped on my camera gear and knee-pads and turned my attention to photographing other insects and spiders.

Several tall and luxurious patches of sweet-scented joe pye weed, Eupatorium purpureum, grew smack dab in the middle of the power line right-of-way. These nectar-rich flowers were magnets for all kinds of insects (other than beetles!), including several species of butterflies. A dozen or so each of large showy eastern tiger swallowtails and monarch butterflies flitted from blossom to blossom, occasionally unfurling their probosces to imbibe the flower’s sweet offerings.

I decided to head into the adjacent woods by following a fire line that snaked along the edge of a recent prescribed burn. I scanned the lush wall of vegetation that delimited the surrounding woods from the burn in hopes of finding multi-legged creatures. Nearly half an hour elapsed and all I had to show for my photographic efforts was a young Carolina mantid (Stagmomantis carolina) and a black-and-yellow garden spider (Argiope aurantia).

I saw a flash of shiny black wings among the foliage. My first thought was that it might be a mourning scorpionfly, but then it became clear that it was a female robber fly (family Asilidae) dining on a small wasp. I am no robber fly expert, but this particular fly reminded me of the genus Laphria, some of which are bee or wasp mimics.

Just as I was about to take a photograph, she was gone. Fortunately, I saw her land on a nearby leaf and she was still very much in possession of her lifeless prey. I leaned in to take the shot and, with the burst of my flash, she took to the air again. I watched intently as the shiny black fly flitted along the wood’s edge and landed on another leaf. Again, I slowly inched my camera toward her and watched her black shiny body fill up the frame of my viewfinder. And again, the flash of my camera caused her to fly away and into the burn area. I tracked her through several more landings on the low growth before she landed on a log. I took my third and last shot and she was gone. During the pursuit, a slightly smaller individual of the same species, possibly a male, also crossed my path.

I slowly walked all the way around the edge of the burn and back to the car, but saw no more robber flies. I told Paul that I had photographed what I thought to be a Laphria, but he said that the dark wings didn’t really fit any Virginia species in that genus. Paul would certainly know since he had recently published the first annotated checklist of the 115 species robber flies known to occur in Virginia (Bedell, 2010). I promised to post my best photo of the fly in question on my Facebook page as soon as I returned home.

Eric Fisher

Once posted, Paul suggested that it might be the very rare Orthogonis stygia, a species not yet known to occur in Virginia. I sent Paul all three of my images and he forwarded them to Eric Fisher for confirmation. Eric, a dipterist and asilid expert (and fellow alumni of Cal State Long Beach) quickly confirmed Paul’s identification and another new state record for Virginia.

Stanley Bromley (1931) first described this pompilid wasp mimic from three specimens collected in June; two of the specimens were from North Carolina and Mississippi, while the origin of the third specimen was unknown to him.  Another specimen was later recorded from Florida (Bromley, 1950).  Since then, specimens of this exceptionally rare species have been found in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas (Taber & Fleenor, 2003; Barnes et al., 2007).

Paul and I returned to the site only two days after I snapped my photos and searched several hours for Orthogonis. Although our efforts were in vain, we have not given up! Stay tuned for further developments

References

Barnes, J. K., N. Lavers, and H. Raney. 2007. Robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of Arkansas, U.S.A.: Notes and a checklist. Entomological News 118: 241-258.

Bedell, P. 2010. A preliminary list of the robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of Virginia. Banisteria 36: 3-19.

Bromley, S.W. 1931. New asilidae with a revised key to the genus Stenopogon Loew: (Diptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 24: 427-435.

Bromley, S.W. 1950. Florida Asilidae (Diptera) with description of one new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 43: 227-239.

Taber, S.W., and S.B. Fleenor. 2003. Range extension, habitat, and review of the rare robber fly Orthogonis stygia (Bromley). Southwestern Entomologist 29: 85-87.

For more information on robber flies visit:

Asilidae (Robber Flies) Page. A Page by Roy Beckemeyer <http://www.windsofkansas.com/Basilidae/asilid.html

Family Asilidae – Robber Flies <http://bugguide.net/node/view/151/bgpage>

Giff Beaton’s Robber Flies (Asilidae) of Georgia and the Southeast http://www.giffbeaton.com/Robber%20Flies.htm>

Robber Flies <http://hr-rna.com/RNA/Robber%20main%20page.htm>

Robber Flies (Asilidae) <http://www.geller-grimm.de/asilidae.htm>

The Robber Flies of Crowley’s Ridge, Arkansas. An Illustrated Guide by Norman Lavers http://normanlavers.net/>

ANOTHER RARE BEETLE ADDED TO THE VIRGINIA FAUNA

Posted in Beetles, Insects, Virginia on August 11, 2011 by Dr. Art Evans

By Arthur V. Evans

While sorting through some spring Malaise trap samples from the Bull Run Mountains Natural Area Preserve, I came across a single specimen of a soldier beetle-like insect five millimeters in length that was unfamiliar to me. It resembled a drawing that I had seen in Blatchley (1910) of Blanchardia gracilis (now Blatchleya gracilis: Omethidae).

I ran the specimen through the omethid key American Beetles (2002) and determined it to be Omethes marginatus LeConte. The specimen compares perfectly to LeConte’s type in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University and represents a new species AND family record for Virginia. Omethes marginatus was previously known from Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; additional new state records include Arkansas and Indiana. Omethids of any stripe are rare in collections and little is known about their natural history.

References

Arnett, R.H., Jr., M.C. Thomas, P.E. Skelley, J.H. Frank, editors. 2002. Volume 2. American Beetles. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.

Blatchley, W. 1910. An illustrated descriptive catalogue of the Coleoptera or beetles (exclusive of the Rhynchophora) known to occur in Indiana. With bibliography and descriptions of new species. Indianapolis, IN.

 

ONE SMALL STEP FORTY-TWO YEARS AGO

Posted in Beetles, Butterflies, California, Insects, Moths, Musings on July 20, 2011 by Dr. Art Evans

By Arthur V. Evans

I grew up on the southwestern fringes of the Mojave Desert in Southern California, just a stone’s throw from the land of The Right Stuff. My summers were punctuated by weeklong family camping trips to the mountains and the coast. Dad preferred the rugged lushness of the Sierra Nevada, especially along the waterways that spilled off its eastern slopes down to the desert environs of the Owens Valley below. Mom loved the beach, so we would spend another week camped out at Morro Bay or Pismo Beach, both located along California’s Central Coast.

In July of 1969, we spent a week in the Oceano Campground at Pismo Beach State Park, which just happens to be a well-known overwintering site for monarch butterflies. I can still smell the heavy canvas of our baby blue and olive-drab tents heated by the sun as it burned through the last bits of morning fog. I spent every possible moment exploring the freshwater lagoon, coastal dunes, and beach in search of insects and other invertebrates. California ctenucha moths, Ctenucha rubroscapus flitted about the flowers and grasses sprouting up on the dunes. Several diurnal and non-bioluminescent fireflies, Ellychnia californicarested on the flowers growing among the stinging nettles that lined the shore of  the lagoon. Red admirals, western tiger swallowtails, and a dizzying array of dragonflies flew hither and yon, all seemingly daring me to capture them. And I did just that with my recently acquired homemade insect net fashioned from a broom handle, a heavy wire coat hanger, and a net bag made of cheesecloth.

In those days I kept my insect collection in sturdy cardboard cigar boxes. King Edward Imperials housed my butterflies and moths, while the dragonflies were stored in a White Owl box. A Roi-Tan Panatelas box protected my true bugs, cicadas, grasshoppers, and katydids. All of my beetles were neatly arranged in a box that once held Swisher Sweets and the Dutch Masters box served as a catchall for everything else. I can still smell that pungent aroma of tobacco mingled with mothballs!

Earlier that week, on the morning of 16 July, Apollo 11 had set off on its historic flight to put men on the moon and return them safely to Earth. The astronaut’s first steps on the lunar surface, interspersed with simulations, would be televised early on the evening of Sunday, 20 July. Fortunately, I would have access to a television by then because that was the day we would return home.

The promise of seeing and collecting still more insects AND watching men on the moon on television was pretty heady stuff for a 12 year-old! The night was shaping up to be hot and uncharacteristically humid and promised an excellent night for insect activity. I turned on the mercury vapor street light mounted on the garage wall. Dad had installed the bright blue light partly to illuminate the front of the house, and partly to attract insects for me. I quickly discovered that it was a beacon for nocturnal insects!

My plan for the evening was to dash from the light to the television and back to watch both spectacles unfold. It wasn’t even dark yet when Neil Armstrong opened the hatch of the Lunar Module and slowly descended down the ladder to utter those now-famous words, all captured on fuzzy black and white, yet still quite memorable video. Throughout the evening, between bouts of nighttime bugs, I watched in awe as Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin bounced across the lunar surface to collect samples and conduct experiments. Just a few years later, I had the opportunity to meet Buzz Aldrin and get his autograph after he gave a lecture on his lunar experience at the annual Kern-Antelope Historical Society banquet held in Rosamond, California.

As night descended, thousands of insects of all sorts swarmed to the bright bluish light, zooming around it as if they, too, were satellites orbiting a heavenly body. My eyes, ears, and nose were simultaneously assaulted by the flappings and scratchings of chitinous wings and appendages. Undeterred, I dove into the swarm from time-to-time to scoop up select specimens off the rough stucco wall. Some of the more notable insects that I saw that night included many white-line sphinx moths, several California prionus, and a raft of 10-lined June beetles.

For those who did not experience the Apollo 11 mission as it took place, it is difficult to imagine the nearly global excitement generated by the landing of men on the moon. I was lucky enough see this epic event on television. I still get a little verklempt when I watch the video some 42 years later and will forever remember that warm summer night all those many years ago and its promise and deliverance of new and exciting things here on Earth and beyond.

References on California insects

Evans, A.V. and J.N. Hogue, 2004. Introduction to California Beetles. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Evans, A.V. and J.N. Hogue, 2006. Field Guide to Beetles of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Hogue, C.L. 1993. Insects of the Los Angeles Basin. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, CA.

Powell, J.A. and P.A. Opler, 2009. Moths of Western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Powell, J.A. and C.L. Hogue, 1979. California Insects. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

For more information on Apollo 11 and its mission see:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11

http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/apollo/apollo11/index.html

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/

http://history.nasa.gov/ap11ann/kippsphotos/apollo.html

MEET THE FALL CANKERWORM

Posted in Insects, Moths, Pests on January 19, 2011 by Dr. Art Evans

By Arthur V. Evans

Adult male fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometaria. ©2011, A.V. Evans

During a recent warm spell on the heels of New Year’s Day, a small collection of somberly hued moths gathered at my front porch light. I posted a picture of one of these moths on my entomology page on Facebook, and it was immediately identified as the fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometaria (Harris), a moth in the family Geometridae. The caterpillars of geometrids are collectively called inchworms. Adult fall cankerworms present a striking example of sexual dimorphism. Males are fully-winged, while the females are wingless. Native to North America, fall cankerworms are found from Nova Scotia to South Carolina, west to western Alberta, Colorado, Kansas, and California.

Adult female fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometaria. ©2011, A.V. Evans

Adults are typically active in fall and early winter. Females lay batches of 50-200 carefully aligned and upright eggs on small twigs and branches. Before leaving, they cover their eggs with scales from their abdomen. Upon hatching in late spring, each caterpillar descends from its egg on a single silken strand and is dispersed by the wind.

The ravenous larvae consume leaves and young fruits of many kinds of deciduous tree and are especially fond of maple, oak, and elm. Young larvae “skeletonize” patches (cankers) on the undersides of leaves by eating only the leaf tissues between the small veins. Older larvae consume nearly all leaf tissues and leave only the major veins behind. After 4-5 weeks of feeding the caterpillars reach maturity and lower themselves on to the ground via silk strands to enter the soil to pupate.

Fall cankerworm. © 2012, A.V. Evans

Large numbers of fall cankerworm larvae can defoliate trees and seriously damage fruit trees. Most trees and shrubs can withstand the onslaught, but mortality is possible if the plants are already stressed from drought and other adverse conditions. Check with your local nursery or extension agent for information on effective controls for fall cankerworms.

References

Cranshaw, W. 2004. Garden insects of North America. The ultimate guide to backyard bugs. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 656 pp.

Johnson, W.T. and H.H. Lyon. 1994. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs. Second edition with corrections. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 560 pp.

Powell, J.A. and P.A. Opler. 2009. Moths of western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 369 pp.

© 2011, A.V. Evans

REFLECTIONS ON ARIZONA’S JEWEL SCARABS-Part 1

Posted in Arizona, Beetles, Insects with tags , , , , on September 27, 2010 by Dr. Art Evans

By Arthur V. Evans

I can still remember the very first Chrysina that I ever saw alive in Arizona. It was August 5, 1973 and Bob Duff and I had just set up our black lights in Bog Springs Campground in Madera Canyon. A soft-spoken man sporting a white t-shirt, khakis, and a crew cut came into our camp and introduced himself as Gayle Nelson. Only later did I discover that Dr. Nelson was one of the world’s leading authorities of jewel beetles (Buprestidae).

As the sun slowly set, the oaks all around us came alive with the buzzings of beetles. As Bob, Gayle, and I conversed, my eyes darted nervously this way and that  to each and every buzz in the bushes. This was my first night of black lighting in Southeastern Arizona’s Sky Islands and I did not want to miss any choice beetles! I did not know then that most of this crepuscular beetle activity was just the mating and feeding frenzy of several species of plain brown or black June beetles (Phyllophaga).

Just as darkness had completely descended upon us, I heard a bigger buzz followed by a thud. There on the sheet in front of me was an apple green beetle on its back with its lavender legs clawing at the air. I picked up the gorgeous beetle with my thumb and forefinger, only to discover that it’s powerful legs were tipped with needle-sharp claws. In spite of this surprisingly painful encounter, I was not about to let go of my very first Beyer’s jewel scarab, C. beyeri.

For several years afterwards the abundance of Chrysina at my lights were used as a barometer of sorts. I used their numbers, rightly or wrongly, as a way of measuring my success during many summer nights of black lighting in the mountains of Southeastern Arizona. Eventually my sensibilities began to change.

During the 1990’s, I collected specimens of C. beyeri and C. gloriosa alive and took them back to California for display in the Ralph M. Parsons Insect Zoo at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, where I worked as the director. Both species thrived for several months on diets of oak leaves and juniper, respectively. Although the captive scarabs produced plenty of grubs, I made no effort to rear them to adulthood. To this day I regret not writing a formal description of the larva of Beyer’s jewel scarab and submitting it for publication; as of this writing, the immature stages of this species remain undescribed.

Now I regard species of Chrysina at my lights simply as old friends and no longer feel the urge to collect them in long series, if at all. I have heard stories of collectors and dealers with considerably less restraint collecting hundreds of specimens from the same mountain canyons, year after year. This annual carnage has led some people to wonder out loud whether or not Arizona’s Chrysina are in real need of some sort of legal protection. Nearly 30 years ago, Arnett and Jacques (1981) declared that both C. beyeri and C. gloriosa, which they mistakenly thought were the only species in the United States, were “…endangered and should not be collected.” However, on a warm and dry night in Madera Canyon this past July, all three species of Arizona’s Chrysina turned up at my light in good numbers. One species, C. gloriosa, was there in incredible abundance. Still, it would be worthwhile for a university or governmental agency to study the overall impact of intensive collecting on Chrysina populations in Madera Canyon and other popular collecting sites in southeastern Arizona.

Commonly known as jewel scarabs, the genus Chrysina is replete with incredibly beautiful, often metallic species. It includes nearly 100 species, most of which occur in Mexico and Central America. The four species in the United States are relics of a rich Neotropical fauna that expanded northward during more favorable (wetter) periods. For the past 10,000 years or so, these species were able to adapt to an increasingly warmer and drier climate by taking refuge in the high elevations of mountains.

 

Weldon Heald

 

The Southwest mountains inhabited by Chrysina are like stepping stones that bridge the gap between the temperate flora and fauna of the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the tropical biota of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. This archipelago of mountain “islands” in southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Mexico are surrounded by hot, dry desert “seas.” As such, they were dubbed “Sky Islands” nearly 60 years ago by the natural history writer Weldon Heald. Arizona’s Sky Islands are home to three species of Chrysina; the fourth American species is found in Texas.

All four of the American jewel scarabs were originally described in the genus Plusiotis. As a result of morphological and DNA evidence, the newer name Plusiotis was deemed redundant in relation to the older monicker Chrysina and it was formally synonymized by Dave Hawks (2001). The first species known in the United States, the glorious jewel scarab (C. gloriosa), was described by the father of American coleopterology, John L. LeConte in 1854. LeConte described this emerald-green and silver-striped species based on specimens collected at a copper mine in Texas that are now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Harvard.  These specimens were collected by the Secretary of the United States and Mexican Boundary Commission, Thomas Hopkins Webb. A physician from Rhode Island, Webb was appointed Secretary of the Commission in 1850, a position he held until 1854. In addition to his full-time position as Secretary, Webb enthusiastically collected insects, fishes, and reptiles and sent them to the leading authorities of the day. Later, he would become the secretary and principal executive officer of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

According to my friend, colleague, and Arizona scarabaeologist Bill Warner, C. gloriosa occurs in nearly all of the mountain ranges in at least the southern three-quarters of the state where their food plant, Juniperus, grows. Glorious jewel scarabs also occur in New Mexico, and Texas, as well as the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora. With the onset of the summer monsoons, adults often spend their daylight hours feeding and resting on junipers; they are commonly attracted to lights at night, sometimes in large numbers.

In 1882, two years after LeConte’s death, another prominent coleopterist named George Horn described the second American species of Chrysina, LeConte’s jewel scarab (C. lecontei). His description was based on three examples now housed at the MCZ. These included one specimen from Tucson in the cabinet of England-born actor and entomologist Henry Edwards, another from LeConte’s cabinet collected in New Mexico by the curator of the insect collection at the University of Kansas, Professor Francis H. Snow, and a series in his own collection from Prescott, Arizona. Without any fanfare whatsoever, Horn ended his description by quietly dedicating the new species “to a friend.”

Warner notes that LeConte’s jewel scarab has essentially the same range in Arizona as the glorious jewel scarab, but that it is a bit more restricted to the higher altitudes where its food plant, the ponderosa pine, occurs. This species also occurs in New Mexico and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Durango, Sinaloa, and Sonora.

 

Henry Skinner

 

The third American species of Chrysina was first exhibited by Horn on November 9, 1883 at a meeting of the entomological section of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. He presented two specimens collected in Rio Grande, Texas by his friend and Philadephia physician, Dr. Horatio C. Wood. Wood was a pioneer in American pharmacology who published numerous papers on pharmacology, physiology, and experimental therapeutics and taught neurology and internal medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Early in his career Wood published papers in botany, entomology, and myriapodology. He traveled to the borderlands to collect specimens for the Smithsonian Institution and was one of the first white men to see the Grand Canyon. Wood recalled to lepidopterist Dr. Henry Skinner (1905) that the beetles he had given to Horn were either collected near El Paso, Texas, or in the valley of Tornellias [Tornillo] Creek at the great bend of the Rio Grande. The beetles were described in the minutes for the meeting as “pale malachite green, narrowly bordered with pale gold, the elytra are not striate, but with rows of fine punctures, the tarsi are beautifully violet.” Horn formally described Wood’s jewel scarab, Chrysina woodii, in 1885. These specimens are also housed in the MCZ. Horn noted that he saw another specimen in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. Wood’s jewel scarabs eat the leaves of walnut trees and are apparently diurnal, although some individuals are attracted to lights at night. It also occurs in Chihuahua, Mexico.

In 1905, Skinner, a gynecologist as well as co-founder and editor (1890-1910) of the Entomological News, described Beyer’s jewel scarab (C. beyeri) from four specimens collected in Carr and Miller Canyons in the Huachuca Mountains in southeastern Arizona. This handsome species first came to his attention the previous year when a specimen was sent to him from Reef in Cochise County. Reef was a mining camp in the southwest corner of Cochise County near the Mexican border. It was located in Carr Canyon in the Huachuca Mountains and was named for a noted landmark Carr Reef, an exposed and thick layer of rock. The site is now a campground in the Coronado National Forest. Skinner examined additional specimens presumably collected from the same locality by Beyer, Schaeffer, and Biederman. The Reef post office was officially relocated to Palmerlee (at the base of Miller Canyon) in December of 1904.

Gustav Beyer was a fur manufacturer from New York and an indefatigable insect collector who frequently travelled with his friend and Curator of Coleoptera at the Brooklyn Museum Institute of Arts and Sciences, Charles F. A. Schaeffer. Schaeffer spent a considerable amount of time collecting beetles at his three favorite haunts: Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina, the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas, and the Huachuca Mountains. Charles R. Biederman, a veteran of the Confederate Army and a resident of the Huachuca Mountains, was an ardent insect collector and is buried on his homestead in Carr Canyon. Before the advent of collecting Chrysina and other nocturnal beetles at light, both Biederman (1907) and another collector, Karl Coolidge (1911), noted a decided lack of success in obtaining specimens of C. beyeri, in spite of considerable searching about trees and in leaf litter. After finding a single specimen of C. beyeri in leaf litter, Biederman raked nearly two acres of leaves to find more beetles, but came up empty handed.

Beyer’s jewel scarab has the most restrictive distribution of all Arizona’s Chrysina and is known only from the Santa Rita, Patagonia, and Huachuca Mountains; it also occurs in the Animas Mountains of New Mexico and the states of Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Adults feed on the leaves of Mexican blue oak, Quercus oblongifolia.

In 1915, Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey, a noted and somewhat controversial coleopterist, described several species of Plusiotis, all of which have long been considered synonyms of the previously mentioned species.

Arizona’s jewel scarabs are not only popular with collectors and macro photographers, they also serve as wonderfully instructive subjects for scientific study, especially for scientists seeking to understand the physical qualities and adaptive significance of their brilliant colors. More on this subject will appear in the second and final installment of “Reflections on Arizona’s Jewel Scarabs.”

Sources:

Arnett, R. H., Jr, and R. L. Jacques. 1981. Simon & Schuster’s Guide to Insects. New York: Simon & Schuster. 511 pp.

Barnes, W. C. 1988. Arizona Place Names. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Biederman, C. R. 1907. Notes on Plusiotis beyeri Skinner. Entomological News 18: 7-9.

Burke, H. R. 2004. Notable Weevil Specialists of the Past. Charles Frederick August Schaeffer (1860-1934). Curculio 49: 5-7. Accessed on 26 September 2010 at: <http://www.texasento.net/Schaeffer.html#Burke>.

Calvert, P. P. 1926. The entomological work of Henry Skinner. Entomological News 37: 225-249.

Coolidge, K. R. 1911. Plusiotis beyeri Skinner. Entomological News 22: 326-327.

Evans, A. V. 2007. National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. New York: Sterling. 497 pp.

Hawks, D. 2001. Taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in Chrysina and a synonymic checklist of species (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae). Occasional Papers of the Consortium Coleopterorum 4(1):  1-8.

Hawks, D. 2001. Checklist of Chrysina species (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelinae). (URL: http://www.unl.edu/museum/research/entomology/Guide/Scarabaeoidea/Scarabaeidae/Rutelinae/Rutelinae-Tribes/Rutelini/Chrysina/Chrysina-Catalog/ChrysinaC.html). In B.C. Ratcliffe and M.L. Jameson (eds.), Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles (URL: http://www-museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Guide-introduction/Guideintro.html). Accessed on: 27 September 2010.

Horn, G. H. 1882. Notes on some little known genera and species of Coleoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 10(1): 113-

Horn, G. H. 1885. New North American Scarabaeidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 12: 117-128.

LeConte, J. L. 1854. Descriptions of the Coleoptera collected by Thos. H. Webb, M.D., in the years 1850-51 and 52, while Secretary of the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Commission. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 7: 220-225.

Leng, C. W. 1924. Gustav Beyer. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 32(4): 165-166.

Quincy, J. P. 1882. Memoir of Thomas Hopkins Webb. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 19: 336-338.

Roth, G.B. 1939. An early American pharmacologist. Horatio C. Wood. 1841-1920. Isis 30(1): 38-45.

Skinner, H. 1905. Descriptions of new Coleoptera from Arizona with notes on some other species. Entomological News 16: 289-292.

© 2010, A.V. Evans

COW KILLERS LACK THE VELVET TOUCH

Posted in Ants, bees, wasps, Defense, Insects, Parental care, Predators/parasites/parasitoids with tags , , , , on September 22, 2010 by Dr. Art Evans

By Arthur V. Evans

Velvet ants, some of which are also known as cow killers, are actually solitary wasps. The females are wingless and sting, while the stingless males are fully winged. Although incredibly painful, the sting is seldom dangerous. Velvet ants are rarely abundant enough to need any sort of control and are best left alone to go about their business.

Velvet ant diversity is greater in southwestern United States, less so in the Southeast. Although there are more than 40 species of velvet ants found in the Southeast, only one species in the region, Dasymutilla occidentalis, stands out. It is the largest species of velvet ant in North America and occurs from Connecticut to Florida, west to South Dakota and Texas.

In spite of its nickname “cow killer,” the stings of the female D. occidentalis are not fatal to cattle. The bold and contrasting colors of this velvet ant serves to warn predators that they are quite capable of defending themselves. They also make a squeaking sound by rubbing two abdominal plates across one another as an additional warning. The stingless male is automatically defended by its close resemblance to the female.

Lone females are often seen wandering about on the ground in open habitats from spring through late summer. Winged males patrol these same habitats for mates. Both males and females drink nectar for their nourishment. After mating, females begin searching for the ground nests of bumble bees. Upon finding a nest, the female velvet ant lays a single egg at the entrance of a bumble bee nest. The larva develops inside the nest as an external parasitoid on a bee grub; pupation occurs in the bumble bee’s nest.

Resource: Evans, A.V. 2007. National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. NY: Sterling. 497 pp.

© 2010, A.V. Evans

TARANTULA VS. TARANTULA HAWK

Posted in Ants, bees, wasps, Arachnids, Arizona, Insects, Parental care, Predators/parasites/parasitoids with tags , , , on September 15, 2010 by Dr. Art Evans

By Arthur V. Evans

One of nature’s classic battles is that of the lopsided struggle between a tarantula and its arch nemesis, the tarantula hawk (PepsisHemipepsis). I say lopsided because the odds are usually stacked against the tarantula. The arachnid, paralyzed by the wasp’s sting, is destined to be dragged off and stuffed down a previously dug burrow to become an egg-laying site and eventual fodder for a ravenous wasp grub.

In August, I photographed a tarantula hawk as it dragged a paralyzed female desert blonde tarantula, Aphonopelma chalcodes, across a coarsely gravelled driveway at the foot of the Huachuca Mountains in Sierra Vista, Arizona.

I first became aware of this saga in Walt Disney’s Academy Award winning documentary The Living Desert (1953 and later re-released in 1971) that depicted a day in the life of desert flora and fauna and the struggles of the latter to simultaneously find food and avoid being eaten themselves. It was 10 minutes of film footage featuring a tarantula hawk grappling with a tarantula shot by N. Paul Kenworthy, then a doctoral student at UCLA, that inspired Disney to produce his first documentary. Kenworthy later became one of the two macro cinematographers on the project. I met The Living Desert’s other macro cinematographer, entomologist Bob Crandall, while I was in high school. But that is another story for another time.

© 2010, A.V. Evans

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